What is anti-static extrusion: different types of extrusion in aluminum?2021-01-13
What is Aluminum Profile Extrusion?
We all live in the world of information, and these days it will be difficult to find someone who has not heard anything about anti-static extrusion. We roughly imagine this complex, cumbersome and multi-stage process, but the key points on which it builds often remain invisible to an ordinary person.
In everyday life, people actively use aluminum to create transport, pipes, cables, optical systems, but what precedes these elements of the environment familiar to our eyes? It will be about the technology of extrusion of aluminum profiles in general.
What is extrusion?
In simple words, extrusion is a technological process of forcing a viscous melt of aluminum through a forming hole (matrix). This process carries out using special installations - extruders.
There are also different types of extrusion:
Cold blue extrusion - mechanical changes in the material, through its smooth and consistent processing;
Warm extrusion - aluminum has heat treatment by heating from the inside;
Hot extrusion is a change in the structure of aluminum by processing at high temperatures and speeds, which affects its quality indicators.
Purposes and features of anti-static extrusion of aluminum profiles
The anti-static extrusion process carries out in order to obtain a product of the desired shape, with a given cross-section, while making aluminum more durable and durable.
To start the aluminum extrusion process, you need to prepare in advance drawings, calculations and estimates to meet the requirements for the quality and shape of the product.
Aluminum extrusion stages
Like every technological process, extrusion has its own key (main) stages:
Extrusion begins with design, since there is a relationship between the parameters of the part and the parameters of production, and the specified profile determines the design of the product;
The billet, as the main raw material for this process, is present in a special container of the extrusion press;
Further, under the influence of the press, the workpiece remains solid, although it softens somewhat in the heating furnace. Interestingly, the melting point of aluminum is as much as 660 Celsius;
Preparation of the matrix - it is clean and slightly warm up to improve the passage of aluminum;
This stage combines a variety of matrix shapes with a high production speed, specialists constantly maintain the temperature and monitor the process of aluminum passage;
Computer simulation of aluminum extrusion
Modern computer programs for modeling aluminum anti-static extrusion are capable of effectively improving the quality of extruded aluminum profiles even at the design stage of extrusion dies. Computer modeling allows improving the quality of produced aluminum profiles according to the following indicators:
- dimensional accuracy and profile shape
- strength and appearance of welds
- grain microstructure of material
- mechanical properties of the material
For an ordinary user of such a model, it often remains a “black box”, the internal structure of which is unknown or incomprehensible. Below we will try to explain some of the properties of these models, as well as show their potential usefulness for the practice of manufacturing aluminum extrusions.
The extrusion manufacturing aluminum process
In the sixth stage of production, aluminum becomes very plastic, to some extent - it is like squeezing out sauce or cream, the harder the pressure on the closed edge, the more the material is squeezes out.
At this point, the extrusion process itself begins, the plunger presses on the aluminum in the container with a force of 100 to 15,000 tons, the aluminum enters the die and slowly squeezes through its holes, resulting in a profile;
The product cools down and stretching machines straighten and correct possible twists;
Sawing - the aluminum profile cuts using circular saws;
Then something amazing happens, aluminum goes through the aging process, in ovens heats to the desired temperature. So, under the influence of temperature, aluminum becomes strong, strong and wear-resistant.
Thus, we have materials that, as a result, people use to equip cities, enterprises, design transport and much more.
Anti-static extrusion of aluminum profiles
The concept of anti-static extrusion profile is audible only in limited circles of specialists. And this is not surprising, since extrusion means a complex technological process, which consists of many technological operations.
The process itself consists in extruding material (aluminum) from a closed system through a special hole in the matrix, identical to the section of the extruded profile. All this has function in order to increase the service life of aluminum, to make it stronger, more durable and durable.
In turn, the pressing process usually consists of:
Preparation of pressing equipment;
Preparation of the technological system, as well as tools: matrix holders, press washers, dies, support rings, pads, knives for removing the pressure switch;
- Pre-heating of the pressing tool
- It is also necessary to heat the ingots in a gas oven
- The next stage of extrusion of an aluminum profile is
- Direct extrusion of the aluminum profile
- Editing the profile on the stretching mechanism
- Cutting the material to the measured length
- Unfolding profiles into special baskets
- Transportation and transfer of the profile to the aging oven
- And the last stage is aging of the extruded aluminum alloy profile.
What is the role of these 9 stages in anti-static extrusion?
As a rule, the first anti-static extrusion stage does not require much time and is considered preparatory, but the second begins the most basic thing - pressing the profiles. The structures that are manufactured on the lines are launched in batches.
The mass of one batch is determined by the amount of finished products and the state of the matrix. The sequence of extrusion of profiles from aluminum alloy is regulated taking into account in order to avoid frequent alternation of alloys.
The first part that comes out of the press is usually the smallest and performs the following functions:
- Fills the channels of the matrix set;
- Responsible for the exit of the profile to the hot saw;
- Stabilizes the temperature of the pressing tools
The second part that comes out of the press stabilizes the size of the remaining parts. After that, the equipment is considered adjusted and the profiles are fully pressed and hardened.
And the last aging procedure is performed in the form of heat treatment of the alloy, which is quenched. This anti-static extrusion process consists in heating and holding the material at a high temperature.
Artificial aging in aluminum extrusion
After which the same material is cooled in air, which is called artificial aging. It is such an aluminum profile, which, even without being born - has aged. And can last more than a hundred years. And at the same time preserve any structure, from facades and window profiles to baguette and LED profiles.